Autores: Dondi, M.|Guarini, G.|Raimondo, M.|Zanelli, C.|Fabbriche, D. dalle|Agostini, A.
Fuente: Ceram. inf.
36 (8), 2461-2467
Tionite is the insoluble residue from the titania slag dissolution process for TiO2 manufacturing. It is a fine-grained sludge consisting of rutile, anatase, amorphous phase and bassanite. Chemical composition is TiO2 (ca. 50%), SiO2 (ca. 30%) and minor Al, Ca, Mg, and Fe, plus residual sulfur, implying an acidic pH of waste. Moisture is about 35% of dry weight. The potential of tionite as colouring agent in clay bricks was appraised by admixing (up to 9%) either as-produced or neutralized tionite to four industrial clay bodies. The effect on technological behaviour was assessed by laboratory simulation of the industrial brickmaking process and determining working moisture, drying sensitivity, shrinkage and bending strength, water absorption, bulk density, efflorescence, and colour. The use of tionite is technologically feasible, with little adjustment of industrial cycle, and resulting brick performances depend remarkably on the composition and properties of clay bodies. Carbonate-rich bodies seem to be affected by tionite more during drying than during firing; carbonate-poor bodies range from little changes to consistent worsening of brick performances. No relevant changes of process and product parameters were found up to 3% tionite. Additions over 5% induce significant variations, such as increase of working moisture and water absorption, decrease of bulk density and bending strength. A definite and consistent improvement of this technological behaviour is achieved by using neutralized tionite. The yearly output of tionite could be entirely recycled by approximately four average-size brickworks adding about 3% of residue (dry weight).
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